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AI学会像鸟儿一样“翱翔”

机械滑翔机能利用上升热气流飞行

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2018-10-1608:40  来源:科技日报
 

英国《自然》杂志19日在线发表的一项人工智能(AI)研究称,机械滑翔机现在已经可以借助机器学习,学会像鸟儿一样“翱翔”。

鸟儿会乘着上升的热气流飞行、升高,而不需要挥动翅膀。然而,这些气流复杂多变,人类尚不清楚鸟类如何发现并利用这些气流飞行。如果不充分理解这一点,就很难教会飞行器在现实环境里做到同样的事情。

而所谓机器学习,是指计算机获取新的知识或技能,重新组织已有的知识结构,从而不断改善自身的性能。这是人工智能的核心,也可看作是使计算机具有智能的根本途径。此次,为了应对上述挑战,美国加州大学圣地亚哥分校研究人员马西莫·韦格索拉及其同事,将眼光瞄准机器学习中的“强化学习”(reinforcement learning)。这是一种动态机器学习技术,其中的智能主体通过与其环境相互作用来学习,就像孩子学习一样:行为正确会被“奖励”,行为不当则被“惩罚”。

研究团队编写了一个程序,让两米翼展的滑翔机根据机载仪器对周围环境的测量结果,调整其在空中的俯仰和侧滚动作。根据几天试飞总结出的经验,他们设计了一种导航策略,将垂直风加速度和侧向扭矩(用于让滑翔机左右旋转的力)作为导航线索。研究人员认为,该策略的成功表明鸟类也可能依赖这种线索。

科学家指出,能够顺着热气流向上飞,只是候鸟或其机械模拟物可以安全地进行数百公里快速飞行的部分原因。未来,如果能对如何识别强大上升气流的导航线索进行补充研究,将进一步增强人类对鸟类飞行模式和动力的理解,并有助于开发更高效的远距离自主滑翔机。(记者张梦然)

(责编:宋小萱(实习生)、熊旭)

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